Modern advertising has become an indispensable element of social life and human environment. It has penetrated all spheres of existence of society, actively affects on the social institutions and significantly motivates people’s behavior.
During the consideration of the advertising text there is a trend to comprehensive analysis of the text as a means of communication. Exploring advertising appeal, they take into account the data of other scientific disciplines: philosophy, sociology, cultural studies, psychology, and semiotics. The complex considers the semantic, structural, stylistic, lexical properties of texts that allow speaking about the restoration and further development of a multidimensional approach to the text in modern linguistics.
Advertising is an integral part of journalism, where all linguistic means are aimed at effective and targeted implementation of speech influence. The effectiveness of advertising is a socio-economic category. Advertising should be inherent in the quality, specificity, ease of utterances in close connection with the content.
The advertising text has a dual purpose:
- to solve the tasks that are set by the advertiser;
- to satisfy the need of consumers of advertising in the information.
These functions determine the selection of language components and content of advertising texts.
The information that is contained in any advertising appeal is the description of properties, characteristics of the advertised object, the arguments in its favour, as well as the benefits that will be received by the addressee in the case of the use of this product, each advertisement ends with a call to implement the proposed action, the most often – to purchase the advertised product.
Watching the way the authors of advertising texts organize information to allocate their advertising appeal, among others, and thus separate the advertised objects, we can notice different approaches to advertising. The way to create effective and expressive advertising appeal is the style of advertising.
The style of an advertisement under the condition of the known diversity of differentiation of internal style is functionally coherent stylistic variant, which should be informative, traditional, stereotypical, terminological, short, estimated.
As the type of text, advertising text is conventional and collective concept. The variation of internal style of advertising varies in enough wide limits. However, it is possible to talk about an advertisement as about plastic text model of seemingly opposite, but complementary trends of informativeness and value, as about a kind of text, that is characterized by easy tangibility, line short, clear and absolute perfection of the title.
Effective and influential advertising appeal is a simultaneous combination of short and expressive title-slogan that can be a microtext and carry much of the information and affect on that part of the audience that will not continue reading and make a decision in favour of the object of advertising. But the man, who wonders exactly about described in the advertisement object, will find details and they should be contained in the detailed description, that is, in a longer text. As it was shown in the analysis of advertising appeals published in the press, as well as in materials, which assesses the effectiveness of advertisements, these advertisements were the most effective.
An example is the following advertisement: “Let every night to be generous for adults and kids “, which states: “the modern technology of processing without preservatives allows you to keep dairy products of a great natural taste, high nutritional value and rich in vitamins and substances that are beneficial to health. Enjoy your meal!
Some texts are arguments in favour of the proposed product, and the characteristic of drinking formula “Enjoy your meal!” invites you to hurry to purchase a described product.
The choice of the advertising text, its components are primarily due to the need to show a certain line of the advertised object, select it so that people pay attention to it, and remember it. For example, an appeal to potential subscribers of a magazine simply and directly declared: “There are a lot of magazines – but our magazine is the only “one.”
Nearly every advertisement includes positioning of potential customers, and also the media is able to attract the attention of the target audience.
For a long time the advertisement was divided into rational and emotional aims. Today the opposition between the logical and emotional argumentation in advertising appeal is recognized by experts conventional. This conclusion is based primarily on the obvious unity of the emotional and rational aspects of consciousness.
The most advertising appeals are not only information, first of all, some emotionally intense moments that the addressee personally experiences at the time of adoption advertisements. The vocabulary of the advertising text should be quite influential and characteristic in this respect.
The question of the effectiveness of socio-psychological factors and, in particular, emotional argumentation in advertising appeal takes place at the intersection of linguistic and psychological sciences. Today, advertisers have a large arsenal of techniques that act on the emotional sphere of the consumer.
The number of advertising information that is offered to the consumer on a daily basis, and is inconsistency is so large that the recipient cannot perceive everything and in full volume.
Psychologists say that people see and hear only what they like, or that it is frightening or alarming, or when they are involved in the selection process. For example, a certain number of advertisements use the feelings of fear more subtle than in the direct cases of life-threatening, it is more about the sense of social psychological and physical comfort, but the authors of the texts alert about the threat of a possible deprivation of comfort. For example, in a series of situations, united by the slogan “it is sometimes better to chew than to talk!” the main character finds himself in a difficult position due to the fact that he hasn’t used a chewing gum in time. In addition, the recipient may choose their next steps after reviewing the advertisement. Such applications are widely used in advertising of medicines, hygiene products, washing detergents, cosmetics.
Activation of cognitive activity is a powerful psychological factor in advertising. The advertisement asks the question, seeking to create an incomplete image, to cause cognitive demand.
In the text, built on the model of problem-solving, the author makes in the title or key phrase a certain problem that creates difficulties or inconveniences for the addressee, but in the body of the text the author suggests ways to resolve this problem or overcome the difficulty of using the advertised product.
Usually such texts are constructed in the form of a dialogue with the reader, it is typical that if the replica of the addressee is not given in the text, it should be created by the reader, so the recipient is involved in the process of creating the text, and perception activates significantly.
Let’s consider, for example, the text-a direct appeal to the addressee established in accordance with emotional approach to advertising:
“Are you having troubles?!! Are you let down by the partners and should you sue?!! Are you not familiar with the arbitration process? Do you have problems paying the state tax? It’s really a problem… there is a solution. “Our Bank”. Together we will win! Contact us”
In the above text the emotional component is expressive, the word “trouble” is highlighted by three dividing marks, reminiscent of a cry for help, and also informs about the presence of difficulties. These impressions are explained and enhanced by the subsequent issues, but in emotional plan, they seem to calm down a nervous person, with whom there is dialogue. A reader agrees: “This is a really problem…”. The ellipses at the end of the sentence confuse emotional outburst, established at the beginning of the advertisement. Then with a help of trusting tone you are offered a phone number, using which you can consult. The slogan “Together we will win!” is aimed to inspire confidence. This text should lead the recipient to conclude that the proposed actions will help solve the problems and bring complete satisfaction.
Advertising text needs to compel the recipient to perform various mental operations such as comparison, abstraction, concretization, analysis, synthesis, generalization, establishing analogies, Association, judgment, inference, and others. The involvement of mental operations and efforts optimizes the process of perception of the advertisement.
Considering the basic properties of thinking, the authors of advertising texts appeal to background knowledge and experience of recipients, widely use symbolization and rely on the social nature of thinking.
The effectiveness of advertising is determined by the psychological aspects of motivation behaviour of a potential consumer, the perception of a word or visual image, formation of image, targeted associations and symbols.
Psychological factors largely determine the structural-semantic organization of advertising appeals, and also a selection of lingual and extralingual components of advertisements.
Thus, advertising is a complex psychological and linguistic means of influencing the consciousness of potential customers in order to actively promote the objects of advertising (a product, service or political figure), as well as to create a positive image of the firm, organization, individual institutions of society.